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Marshall Institute

The George C. Marshall Institute was established in 1984 as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation to conduct technical assessments of scientific issues with an impact on public policy. In every area of public policy, from national defense, to the environment, to the economy, decisions are shaped by developments in and arguments about science and technology. The need for accurate and impartial technical assessments has never been greater.

Fossil Fuel Energy and Economic Wellbeing

The George C. Marshall Institute is pleased to announce the publication of a new study by Dr. Michael Canes, Fossil Fuel Energy and Economic Wellbeing. Executive Summary. Today, fossil fuels supply better than 86 percent of the marketed energy used worldwide. The proportions of oil, gas and coal vary by region but basically these three […]

Climate Realists and Energy Optimists

By Professor Will Happer One of the latest entries in the campaign to demonize atmospheric carbon dioxide gas, CO2, is the organization RepublicEn, based in Berkeley, California. They tout themselves as Climate Realists and Energy Optimists. Someone recently pointed out that the politically correct stance on CO2 by California’s two main parties is: Democrats: CO2 […]

The Myth of Carbon Pollution – Powerpoint presentation

On October 15, 2014 Dr. William Happer, Chairman of the George C. Marshall Institute, discussed “The Myth of Carbon Pollution.” “Carbon pollution” is a propaganda slogan for the campaign against carbon dioxide (CO2). It is not science. Atmospheric CO2 is not a pollutant but is essential for plant growth. Current CO2 levels are far below […]

Global Zero and New Paradigms for Nuclear Deterrence

On July 25, 2013, Dr. Robert Butterworth and Dr. Barry Blechman addressed a large audience as part of the 2013 AFA, ROA and NDIA Huessy Congressional Seminar Series on Nuclear Deterrence, Missile Defense, Arms Control and Defense Policy,. This event was made possible by the support of the Marshall Institute and its President, Jeff Kueter. In April 2013, Marshall Institute Director Dr. Robert Butterworth published […]

A Day Without Space: Considering National Security Implications

On July 19, 2011 the Space Enterprise Council and the George C. Marshall Institute hosted A Day Without Space: Considering National Security Implications. The Day Without Space series was launched in 2008 and strives to educate policy makers and the public about the growing importance of space to their daily lives and to U.S. economic and […]

Is Manmade Global Warming Real and Dangerous?

On October 9, 2009, Fred Singer, Roy Spencer and Marc Morano participated in a Capitol Hill Briefing for Senate and House Staff: IS MANMADE GLOBAL WARMING REAL AND DANGEROUS? A Look at the Key Issues and Evidence Underlying Cap & Trade Legislation FRIDAY, OCTOBER 9, 2009 12 Noon to 2 p.m. Room 116 Senate Dirksen […]

Excessive Economic and National Security Costs to Result From Low Carbon Fuel Standards

New Studies Highlight Consequences of Proposed Federal and State Actions The George C. Marshall Institute has released two studies documenting the adverse economic, environmental and national security implications of proposed low carbon fuel standards (LCFS). Low carbon fuel standards have been proposed at both the federal and state level, and serve as an element of […]

Economics of a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard

We find little justification for an LCFS as a means to reduce U.S. or state GHGs. Uncertainty over fuel lifecycle GHGs, the costs of such an approach and clear indication that there are far better means to reduce GHGs suggest it is a poor policy choice.

A Day Without Space: Economic and National Security Ramifications

Space systems provide significant benefits to American commerce and national security.  On October 16, 2008 the George Marshall Institute and the Space Enterprise Council of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce co-hosted a “A Day Without Space” to discuss the implications of losing access to space-borne assets and information for the U.S. economy and national security. Speakers […]

Considerations for an 80% Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions

In short, technology is the only feasible and humane means to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and maintain an acceptable standard of living.

President Bush Calls for Actions to Establish Greenhouse Gas Emission Goals

This morning President Bush laid out a new initiative to engage the fifteen nations recognized as largest emitters of greenhouse gases, including the U.S., India, China and the largest European countries, to begin a series of meetings to establish worldwide emission targets. The President restated his opposition to “one-size-fits-all” mandatory actions; under his proposal, each […]

New Greenpeace Report Continues Campaign to Silence Debate on Climate Change

Greenpeace’s strategy is one of attacking organizations based on whom they receive financial support from rather than the quality or content of their work. “In free and open societies, free speech and the right of dissent are virtues, not vices,” Marshall Institute President Jeff Kueter said. “Efforts to promote censorship through intimi-dation are offensive and […]

China’s Military Policy in Space

China is quickly becoming a major actor in outer space. Its highly publicized exploration program and its commercial prowess are indicators of growing means and interest in space activities. This discussion explores China?s military goals and intentions in space as well as its technological capabilities. It also considers the means and measures needed to counter […]

Open Letter to Matthew Quayle, Executive Producer of Squawk Box on CNBC Presentation “Fire and Ice”

Climate change is a very complex subject. It is understandable that people in the media have difficulty grasping that complexity. That is reason for caution and for emphasis on doing what journalists are supposed to do in developing a story…

The U.S. and China: What ‘Common Ground’ in Outer Space?

As the International Space Station (ISS) struggles toward “assembly complete,” and as the space shuttle program lurches towards retirement while its replacement wavers in configuration and schedule uncertainties, American space officials can be forgiven the impulse to look for miracle cures for growing U.S. space program challenges. The latest fad is to imagine all the […]

From Oil Sands and Cornfields to Server Farms: Principles to Consider When Formulating Energy Policy

A Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy

A Review of the NCEP Bipartisan Energy Strategy

In December 2004, the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP) published a report entitled “Ending the Energy Stalemate: A Bipartisan Strategy to Meet America’s Energy Challenges.” The Commission was established by its members as an unofficial body in 2002 and has been supported by foundation money.

Vanity Fair – Wrong on the Science, Disgraceful in Supporting Personal Attacks

The campaign of personal destruction propagated by environmental advocacy groups hit a new low with the release of the May issue of Vanity Fair and the subsequent press conference today by the National Environmental Trust. Their accusations about Dr. Frederick Seitz are unfounded and unbelievable. It reflects a campaign of character assassination and the lack […]

Senate Climate Conference Offers One-Sided View

WASHINGTON – The Domenici-Bingaman White Paper and scheduled “conference” appears to raise a number of important questions to stimulate discussion leading to the development of legislation, but it is clear that the objective is not a search for the right path; it is a justification for a regulatory program based on a mandatory “cap and […]

Presidential Decisions: National Security Council Documents

If the United States put weapons in space, would it deter or provoke others to follow suit?  What should we forgo in an effort to protect the secrets of spy satellites–Advances in science and civilian technology?  Support for military operations? Disaster relief?  Should we pursue autarky in the space industrial base or seek the benefits […]

Energy and Climate Change Research and the “DARPA Model”

Does the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) represent an organizational model that could be copied to help meet the technological challenges of climate change and energy supply?

Climate Policy: A Reality Check

Healthy skepticism makes good journalism and is recognized as a virtue. In the climate debate, unfortunately, it has been treated as a vice. It should not be.

Washington Post: G-8 Urges Action on Global Warming, With General Goals

[A] drastically slimmed-down version of earlier G-8 drafts, states that although some uncertainties about climate change remain, “we know enough to act now and to put ourselves on a path to slow, and, as science justifies, stop and then reverse the growth of greenhouse gases.”

Technology & LCDs are Proper Focus for G-8 Summit

When leaders of the G-8 nations meet this week their discussions of climate change policy should focus on ways to accelerate the transition of technologies presently used in their own countries to the developing world, with particular emphasis on China and India. The international dimensions of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are frequently overlooked in discussions […]

Lobbying & Law – Cold Cash and Global-Warming Research

Jeff Kueter, president of the George C. Marshall Institute, complains that the mainstream media does not respect climate-change research conducted by industry-funded groups, such as his Washington think tank. He says that scientists who question whether global warming is real “are quickly labeled [as] having received money from the petroleum industry. The media considers their […]

Creating Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity: Policy Options and Opportunities

Dr. David Montgomery concludes that the pricing structure of an emissions trading system actually undermines the incentives to invest in long-term R&D.

Meteorologist Likens Fear of Global Warming to ‘Religious Belief’

An MIT meteorologist Wednesday dismissed alarmist fears about human induced global warming as nothing more than ‘religious beliefs.’ “Do you believe in global warming? That is a religious question. So is the second part: Are you a skeptic or a believer?” said Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Richard Lindzen, in a speech to about 100 […]

Concern, Not Over-reaction: A Response to Business Week Climate Change Cover Story

The potential for humans to harm climate is a legitimate cause for concern, but that concern needs to be channeled in useful directions.

Global Warming Debate Heats Up Capitol Hill

Canadian businessman Stephen McIntyre and economist Ross McKitrick of Canada’s University of Guelph charge that the Nature report contains numerous errors regarding temperatures from the past six centuries.

Global Warming Smear Targets

While most of official Washington was captivated with the fight on the Senate floor to pass an energy bill before Congress left town for its August vacation, a vicious campaign was under way behind the scenes to smear two leading scientists for pointing out serious flaws in the science behind the theory of human-caused climate […]

National Security Implications of the Asteroid Threat

Speaking at the George Marshall Institute’s Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy on February 4, 2003, Dr. Randall Correll called for greater awareness of the risks associated with small asteroid detonation in Earth’s atmosphere and urged a high-level dialogue to discuss the potential to relax limits presently placed on the release of data from classified defense satellites.

Does Energy Policy Matter?

A Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy

Climate Science and Policy: Making the Connection

Scientific assessment is the critical step in turning scientific information into useful input for public policy decisions. It needs to be carried out at both the national and international level. The U.S. does not have a credible, ongoing assessment process and needs to establish one.

Time for a Real National Assessment of Climate Change

As the year 2000 ended, the outgoing Clinton Administration released the U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Change Variability and Change for the Nation, a document clearly intended to generate increased fears of global warming and promote policies restricting the use of fossil fuels. To help citizens and policymakers appraise the validity […]

Climate Models and the National Assessment

Executive Summary The U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change for the Nation intends to “provide a detailed understanding of the consequences of climate change for the nation.” This report argues that the National Assessment will not be able to provide policymakers and the public with useful information on climate […]

Calculating the Climatic Impacts of Increased CO2: The Issue of Model Validation

Some Difficulties in Simulating Climate Variables Temperature (Surface, Troposphere and Stratosphere) Precipitation Clouds Expected Outcomes of CO2 Forcing The range of modeled global warmings for CO2 doubling Non-robustness of predicted changes for North Atlantic thermohaline circulation Comments Good morning! My name is Willie Soon.  Before I start, let me first acknowledge that this presentation is […]

Supercomputers and Super Surprises

Clearly, our knowledge of weather formation has a long way to go before it understands all the tricks Mother Nature has up her sleeve.

Climate Change: Real and Imaginary

Does the world face a future where the relatively benign climate the world enjoyed during the 20th century will become much more hostile? History suggests that it may. Scarcely a week goes by without scientists announcing new evidence of massive past climate disruptions. For example, a recent paper in Nature described the historical behavior of […]

Climate Change: A Political Assessment

Industry has an important role in advancing our understanding of the climate system, in bringing forward new technology, and in promoting the economic aspirations of people around the globe without diminishing the well-being of generations that will follow us. Realizing these outcomes, however, will require a change in strategy and approach.

Comments on New Danish Solar Study

Is it possible to guess what the Sun will do in 2011 or 2022 and conclude that it has no role for climate change today? You be the judge! New sensational results (April 2000) At the European Geophysical Society meeting in April two scientists, Peter Thejil and Knud Lassen, present sensational new results on solar […]

The Sun Also Warms

Recent discoveries that shed light on the possible influence of the Sun on the climate of the Earth owe to experiments and instruments born of high technology and launched into space. They have provided us with new ideas about the nature of changes in Sun’s light, its charged particle emissions, and how they both affect […]

A Guide to Global Warming – Questions and Answers on Climate Change

Introduction For well over a decade, the George C. Marshall Institute has been addressing the studies, the speculation on hazards, the many efforts to predict, and the theories supporting fear of human-made global climate change. The George C. Marshall Institute believes that public discussion of human-made global warming as a world encompassing problem may be […]

Solar Variability and Climate Change

The purpose of this article is to give you some details about the research which my colleagues (especially Sallie Baliunas and Eric Posmentier) and I have done in studying the controversial relationship between the Sun’s energy output and Earth?s temperature, in short, the sun-climate connection. Despite what you may have heard before about sun-climate studies, […]

Why So Hot? Don’t Blame Man, Blame the Sun

Last month’s heat wave has prompted by-now-predictable warnings about, as Time magazine’s cover puts it this week, “New Concerns on Global Warming.” Computer simulations say the “greenhouse effect” should have raised the temperature globally by about one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) in the past 100 years. But actual temperatures have not cooperated with the […]

It is Time to Move Beyond Kyoto

We believe the recent results highlight the fact that more research is necessary and that time is available to do it. With the resources of money and scientific brainpower already committed to research on the factors controlling climate, we can be confident that in the coming years the climate experts will have a more reliable base for predicting 21st century climate.

Global Climate Change Cannot be Predicted

In the summer of 1988 with the thermometer hitting 98 degrees in Washington, D.C., James Hansen, chief of NASA’s Goddard Institute, told a Senate Committee that “the [human caused] greenhouse effect has been detected and it is changing our climate now.” Dr. Hansen said he was “99-percent confident” that current temperature represents a “real warming […]

Global Warming: More on the Fading Crisis

Delegates from some 180 nations are meeting in Buenos Aires to discuss implementation of the Kyoto Climate Change Protocol, an agreement aimed at curbing increases in carbon dioxide emissions that are claimed to cause destructive global warming. Drastic cuts in U.S. energy use and U.S. production of carbon dioxide are a part of the Kyoto […]

Hot Times or Hot Air: The Sun in the Science of Global Warming

The extent of human effects on global climate change remains a highly complex scientific matter, as the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made clear in its last report: Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural […]

Global Warming and El Niño – No Connection

The Vice President and scientists at NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration) claimed in a press release that “new data and analysis suggest that global warming is exacerbating the effects of El Niño.” They further maintain that data from the ten strongest El Niño weather events over the last century show they are increasing in […]

1997: Warmest Year Since 1400?

But why stop at 1400? Because that is just about the farthest back in the recorded past for which this statement is true. Go back just a few hundred years more to the period 1000 – 1200 AD and you find that the climate was considerably warmer than now. This era is known as the […]

National Security and Military Policy Issues Involved in the Kyoto Treaty

The threat of serious man-made climate change is too tentative and uncertain to claim equal status with existing and future threats to America?s national security. Inclusion of military operations in a climate change treaty is inconsistent with the international obligations of our military forces.

Open Letter to President Clinton on the Kyoto Protocol

January 22, 1998 The Honorable William Jefferson Clinton President The White House 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20500   Dear Mr. President: We write today to respectfully request that you thoroughly review and reconsider the administration’s policies and diplomatic practices involved in the Kyoto treaty. We share your commitment to asserting American leadership in […]

Will Global Warming Cause an Increase in Hurricanes and Severe Storms?

It has been widely reported that hurricanes and severe storms are increasing as a result of human-made global warming.  In 1996, Newsweek carried a cover story titled, “Blizzards, Floods and Hurricanes: Blame Global Warming.”  Is there any evidence to support this? The meteorological record is clear on the question.  The chart below shows that there […]

Global Warming Projections vs. the Data: Are the Data Reliable?

According to projections by computer models of climate change, a temperature rise of about 0.4 degrees C should have occurred in the last twenty years because of the large increases in CO2 and other minor greenhouse gases. But temperature measurements from satellites for the period 1978-1997 show no temperature rise at all. Some people argue […]

Is There a Scientific Consensus on the Causes of Global Warming?

Do the experts agree that human activities, such as burning fossil fuels like coal and oil, will cause dangerous global warming? To answer this question it is best to take a look at what the scientists actually say about the greenhouse effect. The scientific portion of the report by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate […]

A Scientific Discussion of Climate Change – Comments on

Preface The extent of human impact on climate remains a highly complex scientific matter. As was made clear in the most recent report for the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), there are great uncertainties in understanding the impact of human actions, such as fossil fuel burning, on global climate. In that regard, […]

Do We Need to Act Now on CO2 Emission Limits?

Since CO2 emission cuts are expected to have a destructive impact on the U.S. economy, waiting until more information is in hand would seem to be the prudent policy.

Is Global Warming Caused by Human Activities?

We can answer this question by looking at the earth’s actual temperature record. Since 1900, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased by an amount equivalent to about a 50% rise in carbon dioxide alone. This gives us a way to anticipate what can be expected for manmade global warming in the next century, when […]

Predictions of Warming Continue to Drop

The extent of human impact on climate remains a highly complex scientific matter, as witness the by the latest report from the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). “Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate,” said the IPCC, “is limited because ? there are uncertainties in key factors.” Indeed, global warming […]

Uncertainties in Climate Modeling: Solar Variability and Other Factors

The test of all knowledge is experiment. Experiment is the sole judge of scientific truth. –Prof. Richard Feynman, 1963, The Feynman Lectures on Physics The possible outcomes resulting from the predicted rapid and dramatic rise in global temperature deserve serious thought. What are the scientific facts in support of the claim that human-made global warming […]

Are Human Activities Causing Global Warming?

Continuing controversy over the extent of human influence on climate change suggests that a review of the latest findings on global warming written for a general audience will contribute to a wider understanding of his critical issue. Previous analyses of the global warming problem by the Marshall Institute have concentrated on the validity of climate […]

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