Marshall Institute's Articles

CSIS Announces Marshall Program on Science and National Security

WASHINGTON, October 28, 2015 — Today, William O’Keefe, President of the George C. Marshall Institute of Science and Policy and John Hamre, President & CEO of CSIS, announced that the Marshall Institute will dissolve its independent status, transferring its national security research work to CSIS. CSIS will not continue Marshall’s work on energy and climate change. CSIS’s […]

Connecting Climate and National Security

There is little question that climate change has become entrenched as a “national security” issue. The Obama Administration has proclaimed climate change to be a present and future threat to the security of the United States. Two different National Security Strategies articulate the case for environmental forces creating security challenges domestically in the U.S. and […]

UAH V6.0 Global Temperature Update for Aug. 2015: +0.28 C

NOTE: This is the fifth monthly update with our new Version 6.0 dataset. Differences versus the old Version 5.6 dataset are discussed here. The Version 6.0 global average lower tropospheric temperature (LT) anomaly for August, 2015 is +0.28 deg. C, up from the July, 2015 value of +0.18 deg. C (click for full size version): […]

World Insight 08/04/2015 China’s GPS

Dr. John Sheldon, Executive Director of the Marshall Institute, discussed China’s Global Positioning Satellites on CCTV’s World Insight program. The video is available at

Climate Issues and Facts

The George C. Marshall Institute is pleased to announce the publication of Climate Issues and Facts.  Authored by James V. Delong, this is a new and updated edition of Climate Issues and Questions, which the Institute first produced in 2004. Climate Issues and Facts poses and answers a series of 19 questions covering topics such as […]

Hardly Academic

Why Diplomacy and Science Need Each Other At U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry’s side when he negotiated a framework nuclear deal with Iranian diplomats this spring was physicist Ernest Moniz, U.S. secretary of energy. His presence spoke to the rise of “science diplomacy,” which can take the form of scientists helping diplomats, diplomats helping […]

An Opportunity to Take the Lead: How the Next National Space Policy Can Restore U.S. Leadership in Outer Space

The United States has been the de facto leader in outer space activities since it placed men on the Moon during Project Apollo. That success culminated the Cold War space race with the Soviet Union, and the resultant technological and scientific benefits gave the United States significant geopolitical prestige and the mantle of leadership in […]

7 questions with John Christy and Roy Spencer: Climate change skeptics for 25 years

This article by Paul Gattis is found on the website at The silver anniversary of Roy Spencer’s career-defining moment arrived with no expectation in March. He didn’t realize it until someone mentioned it to him. For John Christy, he had no idea that a discovery announced in 1990 would not only still resonate […]

Congressional Testimony: Iran’s Noncompliance With Its International Atomic Energy Agency Obligations

Statement of Ms. Rebeccah L. Heinrichs, Fellow, George C. Marshall Institute “Iran’s Noncompliance with Its International Atomic Energy Agency Obligations” House Foreign Affairs Committee Subcommittee on The Middle East and North Africa Tuesday, March 24, 2015 2:00 p.m. — 2172 Rayburn House Office Building Chairman Ros-Lehtinen, Ranking Member Deutch, members of the committee, thank you […]

Disclosure Standards for All, Not Some

The recent controversy caused by Greenpeace’s release of documents about Willie Soon is another example of Red Queen justice—verdict first, trial later—and the witch-hunt tactics of the climate establishment. In the 1690s, witches were burned at the stake. Today, the accused witches are destroyed by journalistic recklessness. The best response to Greenpeace and the media […]

Ambassador Robert Joseph: A Perspective on the Future of Nuclear Deterrence

The George C. Marshall Institute is pleased to feature the remarks made by Ambassador Robert Joseph to the Exchange Monitor’s Annual Nuclear Deterrence Summit on February 18, 2015 in Washington, DC.1 The Marshall Institute is grateful to Ambassador Joseph for his permission to publish his remarks here. Almost from the day of the first use […]

Five numbers reveal our energy future

When the newly elected Congress convenes in January, energy will be a priority. In fact energy is the “foundation” action item according to the just-released roadmap from Speaker of the House John Boehner. So this is a particularly good time to map out just how different the energy world is today, and will be in […]

Will Happer, Princeton’s Galileo

Paul Budline of Princeton, New Jersey, writes: “I do documentary/video work for a living and took my camera to Princeton University last week to interview Will Happer, the physicist and climate skeptic. The resulting 4-minute video, which I put on YouTube Saturday, has been a big hit at enviro sites and FB, but it still […]

Frigid Week Ahead for Most of the U.S.

Brace yourself for more “polar vortex” news stories by the middle of next week. An unusually widespread and persistent cold air mass will grip all but the U.S. Southwest and Florida by late in the week. It’s origins can be traced back to eastern Siberia a week ago, then it crossed the Arctic Ocean and […]

Judith Curry’s Powerpoint presentation on “State of the Climate Debate”

Judith Curry: State of the Climate Debate

I have devoted 30 years to conducting research on a range of topics related to climate change, including climate of the Arctic, the role of clouds and aerosols in the climate system, and the climate dynamics of extreme weather events.  As President of Climate Forecast Applications Network (CFAN) LLC, I have worked with decision-makers on […]

Pat Host of Defense Daily Comments on “National Security Space Launch and the Industrial Base: Issues and Opportunities”

RD-180 Study Committee Adviser Approves Of DoD’s Pace Toward New Engine An adviser to the chairs of the Defense Department’s RD-180 study committee approved of the pace the Pentagon is taking toward developing a new rocket engine as a key lawmaker calls for DoD to accelerate its progress. Josh Hartman, CEO of Horizon Strategies Group, said […]

National Defense Magazine Article on Marshall Institute Directed Energy Roundtable

 Lasers Could Become Cost Effective Missile Defense Weapons By Dan Parsons The U.S. military invests more money than any other country to maintain technological superiority, but its expensive high-tech defenses are increasingly countered by the proliferation of relatively cheap but effective weapons like cruise missiles and unmanned aircraft. Without a more efficient and cost-effective method […]

Science Behind Weather

William Happer, Princeton University, discusses the science behind tracking weather and the impact of carbon dioxide on the climate on CNBC.

Prominent Global Warming Skeptic Honored with Frederick Seitz Memorial Award

Dr. Sherwood B. Idso – the world’s leading authority on the effects of carbon dioxide on plants – will receive special recognition at an international conference on global warming taking place July 7–9 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Dr. Idso is the first recipient of the Frederick Seitz Memorial Award, an annual award established by former […]

Japan’s Missile Defense Policies and Programs

In this Policy Outlook, Marshall Institute Research Assistant Karen Montague traces the emergence and maturation of Japan’s interest in ballistic missile defense.  Montague’s piece documents the depth of the U.S.-Japan partnership to co-develop sea-based defenses as well as Japanese purchases of other elements of the U.S. defensive architecture. The piece is the second in a […]

Directed Energy Weapons: Prospects and Technology

The Department of Defense has been researching and developing high-energy military lasers for decades, and these weapons systems are currently a subject of debate in Congress. A House Armed Services Committee panel described the Army’s Solid State Laser Testbed and the Navy’s Laser Weapon System as “items of special interest” in its draft of the […]

Space-Based Communications: Value of Space to the Warfighter

The Marshall Institute is pleased to provide video sponsorship for the Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies’ series “The Value of Space to the Warfighter.” On May 2nd, Mr. David W. Madden, Executive Director for Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC), addressed a the subject of “Space-Based Communications.” Charged with delivering resilient […]

Bases in Near Space: Discussion of Human Settlement of Space

On Thursday, April 17, the Marshall Institute brought together a panel of experts to discuss scientific, technological and legal aspects of human settlement in near space. The speakers are: Rosanna Sattler, Partner, Posternak Blankstein & Lund, LLP Cheryl L. B. Reed, Program Development Manager, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University Martin Elvis, Astrophysicist, Harvard-Smithsonian Center […]

The Value of Space to the Warfighter Command and Control (C2) and Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

The Marshall Institute is pleased to provide video sponsorship for the Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies’ seminars entitled “The Friday Space Group: The Value of Space to the Warfighter” on Capitol Hill. On April 5, the series featured a discussion focusing on Command and Control (C2) and Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Leading the discussion will […]

Moon’s Challenges and Opportunities for Human Space Exploration

On Tuesday March 25, 2014, the Marshall Institute and the Space Enterprise Council brought together a panel of experts to discuss the pressing scientific, technological and economic issues involved in human settlement on the Moon. The panel speakers are: Dr. Paul D. Spudis, Planetary Geology and Remote Sensing, Lunar and Planetary Institute. Mike Gold, Director […]

The Climate of Insecurity

In this new Policy Outlook, Institute President Jeff Kueter considers claims that climate change will result in conflict.  Recently the State and Defense Departments have reiterated their belief that environmental factors can precipitate armed conflict and the IPCC 5th Assessment Report endorses this view. Drawing on his 2012 study of the issue, Kueter evaluates the claims and […]

Remarks of Paula DeSutter on Russian Missile Modernization

On March 19, the Honorable Paula DeSutter delivered remarks to a Washington, DC audience at a Marshall Institute event considering Russia’s nuclear and missile modernization efforts.

Presentation by Mike Gold on Human Settlement in Space: The Moon’s Challenges and Opportunities

Presentation by Mike Gold, Director of D.C. Operations & Business Growth, Bigelow Aerospace, LLC, on Human Settlement in Space: The Moon’s Challenges and Opportunities at the Institute’s March 25, 2014 event.  Details on the event are available at

Presentation by Dr. Haym Benaroya on Human Settlement in Space: The Moon’s Challenges and Opportunities

Presentation by Dr. Haym Benaroya, Distinguished Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, on Human Settlement in Space: The Moon’s Challenges and Opportunities at the Institute’s March 25, 2014 event.  Details on the event are available at

Presentation by Dr. Paul Spudis on Human Settlement in Space: The Moon’s Challenges and Opportunities

Presentation by Dr. Paul Spudis, Planetary Geology and Remote Sensing, Lunar and Planetary Institute, on Human Settlement in Space: The Moon’s Challenges and Opportunities at the Institute’s March 25, 2014 event.  Details on the event are available at  

Russian Nuclear and Missile Modernization Efforts Considered

  On March 19, the Marshall Institute hosted a discussion on Russia’s efforts to modernize its ballistic missile and nuclear arsenal.  The event featured presentations from Dr. Mark Schneider of the National Institute for Public Policy and The Honorable Paula DeSutter, formerly Assistant Secretary of State for Verification.

A Pacific Space Age and Implications for the U.S.

Institute Fellow Dr. John Sheldon appeared at a Heritage Foundation event on March 11 discussing Japanese, Chinese and American space policy and the strategic implications they hold for the future.

Position, Navigation and Timing: Value of Space to the Warfighter

The Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies continues its educational breakfast seminars entitled “The Friday Space Group: The Value of Space to the Warfighter” on Capitol Hill with a discussion focusing on the topic of position, navigation, and timing (PNT). Maj Gen Robert D. McMurry Jr., Director, Space Programs, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Acquisition, […]

A Review of South Korean Missile Defense Programs

In A Review of South Korean Missile Defense Programs, Marshall Institute Research Assistant Karen Montague reviews South Korea’s missile defense policies and programs.  South Korea has moved slowly, and steadily, towards the construction of a missile defense focused on short-range attacks from North Korea.  U.S. missile defense systems form the core of South Korea’s defense, although […]

Will Congress Support the President’s Climate Resilience Fund? Slim and None with Slim being a Distant Second

There is no chance that this package, the Climate Resilience Fund, will pass Congress. As such, the President is not being serious with the Fund proposal. Federal government spending on climate change related matters has grown rapidly under the Obama administration and now totals more than $20 billion. Almost all of it is misguided. If […]

Social Cost of Carbon

  Video of the Institute’s February 26 meeting discussing the use of the social cost of carbon.  

Presentation by Dr. Patrick Michaels on Social Cost of Carbon

Presentation by Dr. Patrick Michaels, Director of the Center for the Study of Science at the Cato Institute, on the Social Cost of Carbon at the Institute’s February 26th event.  Details on the event are available at

Presentation by Roger Bezdek on Social Cost of Carbon

Presentation by Dr. Roger Bezdek, President, Management Information Services, at the Institute’s February 26th discussion on the Social Cost of Carbon.  Details about the event are available at

Presentation by Stephen Eule on Energy Policy

Presentation by Stephen Eule, Vice President for climate and technology at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s Institute for 21st Century Energy, at the February 25th Institute event discussing energy policy.  More information on the event is available at

Joint Hearing on the People’s Republic of China’s Counterspace Program and the Implications for U.S. National Security

Institute Director Dr. Robert Butterworth was joined by Mr. Michael Krepon and Dr. Ashley Tellis in giving testimony before the Joint Hearing on the the People’s Republic of China’s Counterspace Program and the Implications for U.S. National Security on January 28, 2014.

Robert Butterworth: Statement for Joint Committee Hearing Subcommittees on Strategic Forces and Seapower and Projection Forces

On January 28, 2014, Institute Director Dr. Robert Butterworth testified before a Joint Hearing on the People’s Republic of China Counterspace Program and the Implications for U.S. National Security, Subcommittee on Strategic Forces & Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces. His testimony is attached as a PDF document.

Happer Reviews “The Age of Global Warming: A History” by Rupert Darwall

Institute Chair Dr. William Happer of Princeton University reviews Rupert Darwall’s The Age of Global Warming: A History for Academic Questions. Happer writes: Darwall has presented the first systematic history of the origins and growth of the global warming movement following the 1987 report by the United Nations Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission), […]

America’s Space Futures: Defining Goals for Space Exploration

The George C. Marshall Institute has published a new book, America’s Space Futures: Defining Goals for Space Exploration, edited by Institute Fellow Eric R. Sterner. America’s Space Futures is an important contribution to the ongoing debate about space policy, the American space program, and the human destiny in space.  Despite broad, popular, bipartisan support for […]

Russian Federation’s Approach to Military Space and Its Military Space Capabilities

The Russian Federation’s Approach to Military Space and Its Military Space Capabilities details Russia’s motivations, plans, and capabilities. “The report is an essential reference for scholars, students, and practitioners,” Institute President Jeff Kueter commented.  “It is a thorough treatment of the evolution of Russian thinking on space security questions and complements that analysis with an […]

Spencer Discusses Extreme Weather & Typhoons

Institute Director Roy Spencer discusses the typhoon in the Philippines, links to climate change, and whether skeptical scientists deserve to be heard on national news reports. It’s a provocative conversation on CNN’s Piers Morgan show.

Why Has There Been No Global Warming for the Last Decade?

On Thursday, October 10, Marshall Institute Chairman, Dr. William Happer, a professor of physics at Princeton University, delivered remarks on climate change science before the Princeton Physics Colloquium. The speech offers a detailed scientific examination of the role of carbon dioxide in driving temperature change.

The IPCC’s Magic Touch

Like a magician who uses misdirection to focus attention on what he appears to be doing and not on what he is actually doing, the just released Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5) tries to shift attention from significant uncertainties by issuing a statement that it is extremely likely that warming since 1950 has been mainly caused by human activities. Indeed, it increases its probability estimate from 90% to 95%.

When Is Government Intervention in the Energy Market OK?

Marshall Institute CEO William O’Keefe, formerly COO of the American Petroleum Institute, and Dr. Sergey Mityakov, an economist from Clemson University, discuss when government intervention in the energy sector is justified and the conditions that determine success.

Dr. Roy W. Spencer’s Statement to the Environment and Public Works Committee of the United States Senate, July 18, 2013

Institute Director Dr. Roy Spencer testified before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on July 18, 2013.

Happer Discussing Climate Science

  Dr. William Happer discusses climate science on CNBC.

In Defense of Carbon Dioxide

Of all of the world’s chemical compounds, none has a worse reputation than carbon dioxide. Thanks to the single-minded demonization of this natural and essential atmospheric gas by advocates of government control of energy production, the conventional wisdom about carbon dioxide is that it is a dangerous pollutant. That’s simply not the case. Contrary to […]

A Skeptical Look at the Carbon Tax

The year 2013 will see a major political debate over proposals for a carbon tax—a tax on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). The justifications for the proposals include: (1) a desire to reduce emissions to prevent a rise in global temperatures; and (2) the hope that a carbon tax could substitute […]

Current Developments in Russia’s Ballistic Missile Defense

In May 2012, Russia’s Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said: “Missile defense is an illusion – no matter how much money you invest in it.” At the same time, a source from Russia’s defense industry says that Russia plans to spend up to 20% of the State Armament Program for the period up to 2020 […]

What is Infant Industry? Applications to the Energy Industry

Dr. Sergey Mityakov, William O’Keefe, and Jeff Kueter discuss a recent Marshall Institute study on government subsidies for the energy industry.

Missile Defenses in Turkey

As noted in the 2010 Ballistic Missile Defense Review, Syria possesses a large and highly capable ballistic missile arsenal. The threat posed to the region by those missiles is heightened by the Assad regime’s increasing willingness to employ those missiles against his own people and by what is described as “the most advanced chemical weapons program in the Middle East.” […]

Hottest year ever? Skeptics question revisions to climate data

2012 was a scorcher, but was it the warmest year ever? A report released this week by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) called it “the warmest year ever for the nation.” Experts agree that 2012 was a hot year for the planet. But it’s that report — and the agency itself — that’s […]

The Infant Industry Argument and Renewable Energy Production

“In this paper we review the necessity of government production subsidies for renewable energy on the basis on the infant industry argument, which argues that government support and protection of nascent industries is acceptable.

Does North Korea’s Missile Launch Matter?

It does not matter how much effort the international community puts into negotiating with North Korean leaders, they will continue to do as they please in order to prove that not only are they technologically advanced, but that they will not be pushed around. In February of 2012, the U.S. and North Korea had come […]

Changes in the Fuel Mix Used to Produce Power in the U.S.

Dr. Canes observes: “The purpose is to see whether such mix already is being shaped by market forces that are driving it towards lower carbon content. If so, question arises whether there is any need for policy measures such as Renewable Portfolio Standards or subsidies for non-carbon sources. Further, as mandates or subsidies have substantial costs, question arises whether these costs are justified.”

UAH V5.5 Global Temp. Update for Sept. 2012: +0.34 deg. C

As discussed in my post from yesterday, the spurious warming in Aqua AMSU channel 5 has resulted in the need for revisions to the UAH global lower tropospheric temperature (LT) product. Rather than issuing an early release of Version 6, which has been in the works for about a year now, we decided to do something […]

Economics of Military Energy Use

After the Solyndra Corporation’s bankruptcy and the loss of over a half-billion dollars in federal clean energy loan guarantees, Congress has become more wary of subsidizing commercially risky energy projects. A new question, however, has arisen over whether our military’s operational energy vulnerabilities might justify Defense Department “investment” in energy innovation. Interest in using the military to support everything from biofuels to the deployment of small modular reactors, though, raises several questions.

Taxes, Tolls and Politics

It is usually refreshing when a political promise is kept, but when prevailing circumstances and economics justify making a change, a pledge can be taken too far. Absolutes in politics can lead to unintended consequences. Rather than trust citizens to understand and accept circumstantial changes, politicians often just remain dogmatic.

Junk Science Week: Epic climate model failure

Nearby is a running graph of 5-year averages for the tropical tropospheric temperature, climate models versus observations. In all, 73 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project are plotted against observations so that their respective 1979-2012 trend lines all intersect in 1979, which we believe is the most meaningful way to simultaneously plot the […]

Global Warming Models Are Wrong Again

by Will Happer During a fundraiser in Atlanta earlier this month, President Obama is reported to have said: “It gets you a little nervous about what is happening to global temperatures. When it is 75 degrees in Chicago in the beginning of March, you start thinking. On the other hand, I really have enjoyed nice […]

No Need to Panic About Global Warming

Editor’s Note: The following has been signed by the 16 scientists listed at the end of the article: A candidate for public office in any contemporary democracy may have to consider what, if anything, to do about “global warming.” Candidates should understand that the oft-repeated claim that nearly all scientists demand that something dramatic be […]

Will 2012 Renew 2008’s Drill Baby Drill?

Even before threat of conflict with Iran, oil prices—and hence, gasoline prices—have been rising in recent months. In part, this upward trend stems from the higher costs of finding and producing oil in a world market. Additionally, the “risk premium” due to political instability in the Middle East accounts for another $10 of the current price of $102 a barrel.

Iranian Cruise Missiles Off American Shores

American news sources have widely reported on a recent article in Iran’s state-run Islamic Republic News Agency in which Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari claimed that Iran plans to send ships to the Atlantic sea borders of the United States in retaliation for the U.S. naval presence in the Persian Gulf. This report was amplified by […]

Responding to Oreskes and Conway’s Merchants of Doubt

In 2010, Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway published Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming.   The book disparages the Marshall Institute and its founders, Dr. Frederick Seitz, Dr. Robert Jastrow, and Dr. William Nierenberg. George Mason University’s Center for Climate Change Communication honored Dr. Oreskes […]

The Truth About Greenhouse Gases

The object of the Author in the following pages has been to collect the most remarkable instances of those moral epidemics which have been excited, sometimes by one cause and sometimes by another, and to show how easily the masses have been led astray, and how imitative and gregarious men are, even in their infatuations […]

Dump the IPCC Process, It Cannot Be Fixed

In a recent opinion piece, Ross McKitrick has argued that the IPCC process needs to be fixed. He correctly points out that, “There is too much conflict of interest built into the report-writing process”. But I say the process cannot be fixed. DUMP the IPCC process. The reason why is because the IPCC process was […]

Caveat Emptor: Make Sure of the Facts on Climate Change

If an individual buyer is willing to put hours of work into researching a purchase of tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars, how much effort should the nation put into investigating a proposal which will cost the nation trillions? That is the estimated cost of the climate legislation before Congress.

Snowstorm and Climate Change

After a dumping in the Washington area, critics are delighting in the irony, and supporters are saying the snow fits the pattern of global warming. By Jim Tankersley, Los Angeles Times of February 11, 2010,0,6038596.story As record snowfall buried the nation’s capital this week, the quickest joke around town was, “So much for global […]

Waxman-Markey Costs More Than A Postage Stamp

Rhetoric flew during the House of Representatives’ floor debate of the Waxman-Markey American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). The proposed greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-and-trade program, one of hundreds of mandates within the bill, grabbed most of the attention. Opponents of the legislation bemoaned looming job destruction, energy taxes, and increased vulnerability of farmers. Proponents […]

The Cocktail Conversation Guide to Global Warming

The Cocktail Conversation Guide to Global Warming offers succinct replies to questions about climate change.  The Cocktail Guide is a handy reference for anyone following the efforts of the U.S. Congress and the Obama Administration to construct domestic and global restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions (and the energy producing those emissions). When climate alarmists publicly […]

Analysis of the FY10 National Security Space Budget

This memorandum briefly identifies the President’s requested budgets for major national security space programs and compares the FY 2010 request to FY 2009 and FY 2008 appropriations. It also includes information regarding the House and Senate Armed Services Committees (HASC and SASC) markups to the President’s request. The HASC and SASC reported the revised bills […]

Assessing Missile Threats

Two recent government assessments of ballistic missile proliferation and technical development offer important context for weighing policy and programmatic choices related to the missile defense budget. Nationals Air and Space Intelligence Center: Download PDF: NASIC – Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat Missile Defense Agency: Download PDF: MDA – Foreign Ballistic Missile Capabilities

North Korea on the Brink

North Korea’s (DPRK) five-day outburst of nuclear and ballistic missile testing offers further evidence of its ability to threaten the stability of the Korean Peninsula and the security of U.S. friends and allies in East Asia. In just one week in late May, Pyongyang conducted one nuclear and six ballistic missile tests, defying the United Nations Security Council Resolution […]

The Cost of Climate Regulation for American Households

On March 2, 2009, the George C. Marshall Institute released The Cost of Climate Regulation for American Households which documents the economic burdens a cap-and-trade program to control greenhouse gas emissions will impose on American households. “As the nation?s policy makers consider caps on greenhouse gas emissions, taxes on carbon dioxide, or other measures to […]

Climate Change: Statement of Dr. William Happer before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee

Madam Chairman and members, thank you for the opportunity to appear before the Committee on Environment and Public Works to testify on Climate Change. My name is William Happer, and I am the Cyrus Fogg Bracket Professor of Physics at Princeton University. I am not a climatologist, but I don’t think any of the other […]

Missile Defense, the Space Relationship, and the Twenty-first Century

The Independent Working Group Report on Missile Defense, the Space Relationship, and the Twenty-first Century provides an assessment of missile defense requirements beyond the limited ground-based system currently being deployed, together with opportunities to benefit from existing and new technological opportunities. More specifically, it is intended to provide a greater understanding of proven technology options that should […]

FY 2009 National Security Space Appropriations

This memo briefly identifies appropriations for the major space programs within the FY 2009 Department of Defense budget, changes between the FY 2009 Presidential budget requests and the actual appropriations, and a comparison with FY 2008 appropriations.

Persia in Space: Implications for U.S. National Security

The state-run Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) reported that Iran successfully launched a Safir-2 rocket carrying an Omid research and telecommunications satellite into orbit on February 2. The Omid satellite’s capabilities are not as troubling as the advanced rocket system used to deliver the Iranian Sputnik into space. Indeed, the former head of Israel’s space program, Isaac Ben-Israel described […]

Inconvenient Data: The Need for an International Climate Data Registry

No discussion of climate change proceeds far without recognizing the critical role of observational data in shaping perceptions and conclusions about the state of the climate and how it is changing. Whether the focus is on a seemingly simple question as “what is the temperature trend?” or a more complex question, such as “how is […]

A Post-Mortem on the FY 2009 Missile Defense Budget: Issues and Background

The President’s Request: The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) budget request for Fiscal Year 2009 (FY 2009), submitted to Congress on February 4th, was for $9.336 billion, an increase of $680 million over the FY 2008 appropriated amount. Within this budget, MDA allocated the bulk for the development, testing and fielding of nearterm capabilities, provided approximately $2.5 billion for development […]

Climate and Energy Policy Choices – Remarks of James Connaughton, Chairman, Council on Environmental Quality

In his remarks, Mr. James Connaughton said: “I want to do several things: first, I want to put the climate change issue in broader perspective. Two, I am going to give you a two-minute Ph.D. course on climate policy. Three, I am going to show you how that climate policy is actually taking place in […]

Examining Risks of Nuclear Waste Disposal

Bernard L. Cohen is Professor-Emeritus of Physics and Astronomy and of Environmental and Occupational Health at University of Pittsburgh. He has authored six books, over 300 papers in scientific journals, and more than seventy articles in non-technical journals. He has presented invited lectures in the United States, Canada, Asia, Europe and South America. His awards include […]

Developing Clean, Innovative Commercial Energy: Will Proposed Federal Subsidies Hurt or Help?

A Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy

Radioactive Waste Disposal: Nature’s Way vs. Government’s Way

The problem of the disposal of radioactive waste from reactors is one of the chief obstacles to increased reliance on nuclear power. In this paper, Dr. Bernard L. Cohen,
a physicist at the University of Pittsburgh, examines the problem and compares two strategies for disposing of “radwaste” from spent fuel.

Cap & Trade Realities for CO2 Emissions

The looming U.S. Senate debate on legislation to create a cap and trade program to reduce U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions must consider whether the means to achieve the goals they may establish exist or are likely to exist. In a new Policy Outlook from the George C. Marshall Institute, Donn Dears, president of TSAugust, argues […]

Climate Issues and Questions – 3rd Edition

For well over a decade, the world has debated climate policy and now the United States Congress is poised to take up legislation to cap carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the Supreme Court has ruled that EPA had the authority to regulate CO2, and many states are moving to establish their own restrictions on emissions.  Underlying […]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Biofuels

With the Congress considering an increase in the national mandate for ethanol in the nation’s gasoline supply and presidential candidates touring Iowa and paying homage to the continued subsidization to turn corn into fuel, the United States is unlikely to turn away from policies and programs designed to exploit agriculture for energy generation. Energy legislation […]

National Security Space FY 2008 Budget: Overview and Assessment

A review of the final military space budget for FY 2008.

Aegis Missile Defense: A Proven Capability

The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system took another significant step forward with the latest successful test of its tracking and interception capabilities, following on a long and highly successful series to date. Indeed, this test achieved two hitherto-untried operational milestones: simultaneously engaging multiple ballistic missiles, while also giving a close ally, Japan, an opportunity to participate to verify one […]

Major Economies Can Set the Course for Post-Kyoto Policy

The George C. Marshall Institute commends President Bush for his leadership in promoting a dialogue among major greenhouse gas emitters on a post-Kyoto road map to climate change policies. Together, the nations participating in this meeting account for 64% of greenhouse gas emissions. By building on the successful Asian-Pacific Partnership model, this meeting demonstrates that […]

We Can’t Help Talking About the Weather

I wanted to prove them wrong and show them that the stereotype wasn’t true. My nationality doesn’t have to determine what I say and do. But I failed miserably. And so did my mother when she sent me an email earlier today culminating with the most exciting news from home: “It stopped raining for a […]

Marshall Institute Report on Cap and Trade Profiled on E&E TV

A new report by the George C. Marshall Institute released on July 20, 2007, was profiled on E&ETV on July 24. The report, Why Cap & Trade is the Wrong Policy to Curb Greenhouse Gases for the United States, authored by Dr. Michael Canes, demonstrates that a C&T system would be far more complex and […]

Why Cap & Trade is the Wrong Policy to Curb Greenhouse Gases for the United States

U.S. policy towards controlling greenhouse gases (GHGs) has relied largely on voluntary actions to achieve its objectives. In 2002, President Bush announced a goal of decreasing the GHG intensity of national output (GHGs/GDP) by 18 percent over ten years, by 2012. Public/private partnerships, spending on research, development and deployment, and international agreements such as the […]

Working Group (WG) III’s Contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): Be Sure to Read the Fine Print

The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) of Working Group III (Mitigation), released on May 4, is available on the IPCC website,  In an effort to assist the public’s evaluation of the strong claims made in the SPM and the subsequent use of those claims by the media and public policymakers, this review evaluates WG III?s […]

Evaluating Working Group (WG) II’s Contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)

Evaluating Working Group (WG) II’s Contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) reviews and critiques the findings contained in the Summary for Policymakers (SPM) of Working Group (WG) II’s contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) that are likely to attract the most attention. In reviewing the methodology […]

Let’s Be Policy Driven, Not Politically Driven, in Energy and Climate Change

Today, as Congress considers new incentives and subsidies to encourage the public and private sectors to work together to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (without
sacrificing economic prosperity), the public is well-advised to reconsider the recently passed legislation that established a viable climate policy for the United States.

FY 2008 Presidential Budget Request for National Security Space Activities

A review of the military space activities in the FY 2008 budget request.

Working Group (WG) I’s Contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): A Critique

This report reviews and critiques the findings contained in the Summary for Policymakers (SPM) of Working Group (WG) I’s contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) that are likely to attract the most attention. It draws on material from the final draft of the underlying WG I report and […]

Missile Defense in the Fiscal Year 2008 Budget Request – Issues and Background

The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) budget request for Fiscal Year 2008 (FY08), submitted to Congress on February 5th, is for $8.9 billion, a decrease of $500 million from the FY 07 appropriated amount. Within this budget, MDA has provided $4.0 billion for development of new capabilities; $2 billion for testing of new and existing capabilities; $2 billion for fielding […]

New AEGIS BMD Test Abort Likely Due to ‘Pilot Error’

The latest test of the U.S. AEGIS BMD, intended to simultaneously engage both ballistic and airborne anti-ship targets, was aborted on December 6 when the anti-ballistic missile element of the test failed to launch. The anti-aircraft missile was armed and ready to go, but the test was aborted, since the purpose of the test was […]

What Do You Leave Behind? Evaluating the Bush Administration’s National Security Space Policy

On October 7, 2006, the George W. Bush Administration unveiled its national space policy. Released nearly five and a half years after taking office, the new policy validates the proposition that presidential decisions on matters of cosmic security are a microcosm of the strengths and weaknesses of the Administration that drafted them. The Bush space […]

An Overview of the National Security Space Budget: Fiscal Year 2007

A review of the final DOD budget for military space activities for FY 2007.

The Cruise Missile Threat and its Proliferation

Whereas the threat posed by ballistic missiles, such as those in the arsenals of North Korea and Iran, tends to attract major news headlines, the emerging threat to the United States from cruise missiles gets much less publicity, though it warrants it also. Even a single cruise missile, with a design either obsolescent or obsolete […]

Methanol as a Potential Contributor to Energy Independence

Methanol is often discussed as a potential contributor to energy independence because it is a liquid fuel that relatively easily can be manufactured from any source of carbon: fossil fuels, biomass, or waste (Clayton, 2006). By tapping its vast coal reserves to produce methanol, advocates claim the United States could significantly shift its dependence on imported petroleum for transportation […]

Focus on Technology Development/Deployment Offers Best Path for Addressing Energy Use and Climate Change

Today’s release of the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program Strategic Plan should help to focus the public, the media, and policy makers on finding the most cost effective ways to support the development and deployment of the advanced technologies that offer the most effective way to address the nation’s environment and energy challenges.

Focus on Technology Development Best Path for Addressing Energy and Climate

Today’s release of the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program Strategic Plan should help to focus the public, the media, and policy makers on finding the most cost effective ways to support the development and deployment of the advanced technologies that offer the most effective way to address the nation’s environment and energy challenges.

A Cap and Trade System v. Alternative Policies to Curb U.S. Greenhouse Gases

Since the inception of international discussions regarding climate change, there has been debate within the United States concerning what course of action to take. The state of climate science, the U.S. record in reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity, and the prospective costs of a cap and trade system all suggest that the a policy […]

Associated Press “Survey” Overstates Consensus

The June 27, 2006 Associated Press (AP) article titled “Scientists OK Gore’s Movie for Accuracy” by Seth Borenstein, subsequently printed in USA Today, the Washington Post, and numerous other papers, presents an inaccurate portrayal of the facts about climate change and perpetuates the myth of a consensus concerning human influence on climate. Indeed, science by […]

Academy Report Questions “Hockey Stick”

Today the National Academy of Science (NAS) acknowledged that considerable uncertainty remains in the use of proxy evidence to construct long temperature trends. It also refutes the original use and interpretation of the so-called “hockey stick” graph used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), stating that the data does not support the refined […]

New Report Reviews Hurricane Basics

With the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predicting an active hurricane season in 2006, the Marshall Institute today released a new report examining the forces and conditions which generate hurricanes and make them more intense. The report offers a readable and accessible introduction to the science and is intended for the public, the news […]

Hurricanes: A Primer on Formation, Structure, Intensity Change and Frequency

The 2005 hurricane season visited major destruction on the United States. The devastation of the Gulf Coast, the loss of life, and dislocation of hundreds of thousands is a tragedy that we will not soon forget. Unfortunately, last year’s experiences are also being used to advance claims about climate change. It has been widely asserted […]

Space and the QDR

Marshall scholar Andrew Plieninger reviewed the space-related aspects of the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review.

National Security Space in the FY 2007 Budget Request

A review of military space programs in the FY 2007 budget.

Presidential Decisions: NSC Documents – Supplement: Newly Declassified Excerpts

Presented herein are previously classified excerpts from the documents provided in the first volume published by the Marshall Institute’s National Security Space Project, Presidential Decisions: NSC Documents. The excerpts are organized by presidential administration and are cross-referenced to pages of the earlier volume. Declassification of an excerpt, of course, does not mean that the entire […]

Missile Defense Importance Cited in New National Security Strategy Document

The new National Security Strategy of the United States of America, released in mid-March of 2006, confirms the continuing and expanding role that Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) plays in America’s national security. The document explicitly cites BMD as part of its ongoing efforts to protect the nation and its citizens: “The United States has begun fielding ballistic missile defenses […]

Scientific and Technical Advice to Congress

Interest in how policy makers, and Congress in particular, receive information about scientific matters continues to grow because of the importance of scientific and technical issues in determining national policy. The Marshall Institute agrees that a better understanding of how policy makers obtain information about matters of science is vital. Recent calls for the re-creation […]

No Surprise in “Near Record” Temperatures for 2005

While 2005 may be registering as a “near record” year, according to today’s release from the NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center, that record barely extends back a century, rendering the finding neither surprising nor climatologically significant.

Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming

The Marshall Institute is pleased to release its latest book, Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming. This volume consists of ten essays on global warming, covering the earth?s temperature history and disparities between what has been predicted about climate change and what has actually been observed. The chapters highlight substantial anomalies and new […]

Reforming the IPCC

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988 to provide an assessment of the then state of knowledge on climate change. It produced that report in 1990, but like all bureaucratic organizations, not only did it continue in existence, it expanded its role. In addition to producing assessment, the fourth of which […]

Force Transformation and Space Assets

Terry Pudas discussed how space-based assets are currently employed in network centric warfare and how they will be used in responsive space operations. He also emphasized their contributions to the Department of Defense?s overall goal of force transformation. The Office of Force Transformation (OFT) provides recommendations for linking the Departments transformation efforts to strategic functions, […]

Linkage Between Hurricanes and Global Warming Tenuous

The extensive damage in the United States caused by recent hurricanes once again raises the question of whether these storms are caused by changes in climate, specifically the heating of seawater due to global warming. The clear answer is no.

Space as a Vital National Interest

For almost half a century, spacepower advocates assumed that the critical national security importance of space programs guaranteed attention at senior levels of the U.S. government. However, events over the past four years suggest that national security space continues to be treated as a second-tier issue at senior levels of the Bush administration. The administration’s […]

Some Convergence of Global Warming Estimates

In one of a trio of new global warming papers in Science, Mears & Wentz (2005) address what they consider to be a large source of uncertainty in our (University of Alabama in Huntsville, “UAH”) satellite estimate for global lower tropospheric (“LT”) temperature trends since 1979. The satellite measurements come from the Microwave Sounding Units […]

Natural Climate Variability

Climate varies naturally on timescales ranging from seasons to the tens of thousands of years between ice ages. Knowledge of the natural variability of the climate system is needed to assess the extent of human impact on the climate system. At present there are no robust estimates of natural climate variability on the decades to […]

Missile Defense: Not a Zero Sum Game

In calling for cruise missile defense, David Ignatius lampooned ballistic missile defense [“The Real Missile Defense Gap,” op-ed, March 23]. The ballistic missile threat is real: More than 30 nations possess them, and rogue states such as North Korea have no scruples about selling upgraded Scud missiles to the highest bidder. Indeed, North Korea’s 1998 […]

Estimates of Performance and Cost for Boost Phase Intercept

With the considerable recent interest in boost phase missile defense, Dr. GregoryCanavan explored the assumptions behind analyses of the cost and performance of boost phase intercept from space.  In doing so, Dr. Canavan showed how an effective space-based defense can be deployed affordably. Dr. Canavan has worked in the area of missile and defense technologies for over twenty-five years.  He has served […]

The Frankenfood Myth: How Protest and Politics Threaten the Biotech Revolution

The Frankenfood Myth: How Protest and Politics Threaten the Biotech Revolution By Henry I. Miller and Gregory Conko Description: Few topics have inspired as much international furor and misinformation as the development and distribution of genetically altered foods. For thousands of years, farmers have bred crops for their resistance to disease, productivity, and nutritional […]

Responsive Space: Transforming U.S. Space Capabilities

In the April 2004 issue of Defense Horizons, Dr. Correll and his co-author propose a new strategic posture based on a war-prevention focus. American space capabilities now depend on a fixed infrastructure of large, expensive satellites. The authors argue for a complementary capability to launch small, inexpensive payloads in time of crisis to augment and reconstitute […]

Science or Censorship?

On June 8, 2004, William O’Keefe, President of the Marshall Institute, and Kurt Gottfried of the Union of Concerned Scientists held a debate on the politicization of science on NPR’s Justice Talking radio show. Science or Censorship? Date of Debate: June 08, 2004 Overview Concerned scientists voiced opposition when warnings about global warming were dropped from […]

Global Warming and Malaria: A Call for Accuracy

For more than a decade, malaria has held a prominent place in speculations on the impacts of global climate change.  Mathematical models that “predict” increases in the geographic distribution of malaria vectors and the prevalence of the disease have received wide publicity.  Efforts to put the issue into perspective are rarely quoted and have had […]

24 Frequently Asked Questions on Climate Change

This short guide contains answers to twenty-four commonly asked questions about climate change. It is divided into three sections. The first fifteen questions address climate change science; the next seven, the potential impacts of a changed climate; and the last two, what scientific research is needed and how it should be organized.

New Climate Study Finds ‘Global Warming’ by Subtracting Cooling That Wasn’t There

HUNTSVILLE, AL (May 5, 2004) — A new study of global temperature data reports this week the discovery that significant global warming can be found by subtracting from the temperature record more cooling than was actually there. “You can’t subtract more signal than is there, but that’s what they’ve done,” said Dr. Roy Spencer, a […]

Precipitation and the Enhanced Hydrological Cycle

Given the difficulty in simulating precipitation with a GCM, model projections of drought, floods, and changes in stream flow are tenuous at best.

Cold Facts on Global Warming

We live in an age where facts and logic have a hard time competing with rhetoric – especially when the rhetoric is political alarmism over global warming.

Bush Program Offers Vision & Goal for Space Program

President Bush’s new vision outlines missions and priorities for the space program that hold the potential for revitalizing national interest in space exploration. “The scientific value for the country from a vigorous space program is immense,” Dr. Robert Jastrow, chair of the Marshall Institute, said. Jastrow was the first Chairman of the NASA Lunar Exploration […]

Potential For Reducing Carbon Emissions from Non-Annex B Countries through Changes in Technology

This paper demonstrates how increased investment and technology transfer could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from developing countries while promoting, rather than retarding, economic growth.  The paper develops a model of economic growth with embodied technology based on Solow (1960) and estimates parameters of the model from historical energy and economic statistics.  The estimated model is […]

Temperature Changes in the Troposphere: Beyond the IPCC

Discussions of potential climate change have tended to focus on past and possible future changes in surface temperature. These discussions ignore the fact that climate processes occur in the troposphere, and that any assessment of climate variability and change must consider both the surface and the troposphere. Our current theoretical understanding of greenhouse warming indicates […]

Paraquat: A unique contributor to agriculture and sustainable development

Since 1961, agricultural output has outstripped global population growth by 20%, with a proportionate increase in per capita availability of food. This rapid growth in per capita production has reduced prices of agricultural produce, so that food is now cheaper than it was four decades ago. As a result: People are better fed now than […]

Was the Climate of the 20th Century Unusual? – A Reprise

On July 29, 2003, in a hearing before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee a scientific dispute over the global surface temperature record of the past 1,000 years spilled into a charged political forum. In the highly politicized world of climate change, the trend in global surface temperature is highly salient to policy makers […]

Unraveling the Puzzle: Differing Economic Estimates of Climate Policy

Many analyses have been performed of the effects of reducing greenhouse gas emissions on the U.S. economy. The vast majority show a negative impact on GDP, but the results differ in magnitude and timing. These differences arise from the use of different types of models, different model structures, and different assumptions. It is important to […]

Boost Phase Missile Defense

Intercepting attacking missiles in the boost phase intercept has the advantage of destroying the missile before the dispersal of its warheads and/or countermeasures in the form of decoys.  Dr. Canavan discussed the desirability and feasibility of achieving boost phase missile defense.  He also reviewed the required technologies and systems. Dr. Canavan has worked in the area of missile and […]

The Increase in Global Temperature: What It Does and Does Not Tell Us

The global temperature record is often used to support the claim that the Earth is warming at a rate that is “reasonably consistent” with predictions for warming due to the buildup of greenhouse gases. This paper examines how the Earth’s temperature is taken, examines the reliability of those measurements, and highlights several factors that affect […]

New Thinking on Environmental Policy: Civic Environmentalism for Today’s Environment

Today’s environmental policymaking is dominated by a mistaken focus on big culprit, big ticket, and big government solutions. While disputes over large-scale environmental questions grab the headlines, they obscure the fact that both sides of the environmental debate miss important national realities. For example, a leading cause of water quality problems is not some industrial […]

The Specter of Species Extinction: Will Global Warming Decimate Earth’s Biosphere?

That humans have a profound impact on the natural environment is a foregone conclusion. The alteration of the natural environment began with the formation of the first social groups and the rise of agriculture. Today, two critical questions are whether species are becoming extinct at rates that exceed normal and the degree to which human […]

Combating global warming would be a waste

This article by Dr. Sallie Baliunas appeared in the Providence (Rhode Island) Journal July 25, 2003. HUMANS RECORD historical events, Herodotus wrote, “in the hope of preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done.” Nature also writes its own history. And when coupled with that written by men, it can ameliorate the tendency […]

Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policymaking

A Book by the George C. Marshall Institute edited by Michael Gough ISBN: 0-8179-3932-6 $15.00 paperback 313 pages Politics and science make strange bedfellows. In politics, perceptions are reality and facts are negotiable. The competing interests, conflicting objectives, and trade-offs of political negotiations often lend themselves to bending the truth and selectively interpreting facts to […]

Toward a Theory of Space Power: Defining Principles of U.S. Space Policy

Nearly half a century into the’Space Age’, is it finally possible to extract the principles of ‘Space Power’ in the same way that Mahan encoded ‘Sea Power’ and Mitchell, ‘Air Power’? Can national policies be chosen on a more rational basis than short-term domestic advantages, esthetics, and even whim? Oberg describes some fundamental principles that […]

Coaxing Nature to Reveal 1,000 Years of Earth’s Climate

By Larry O’Hanlon, Globe Correspondent. This story appeared in the Boston Globe, May 20, 2003, page C9. The 20th century may not have been so extraordinarily hot after all, according to a climate study of the last thousand years, which confirms historical accounts of fig trees growing in Germany and early grape harvests in England […]

Lessons & Limits of Climate History: Was the 20th Century Climate Unusual?

A survey of the scientific literature shows that 79 of the 102 proxy temperature studies identified a 50-year period during the past millennium that was warmer than any 50 years in the 20th century. While these results do not allow estimation of globally-averaged surface temperature for the past 1,000 years, they are strong evidence that the temperatures experienced during the 20th century were not unusual.

Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal

The 1000-year climatic and environmental history of the Earth contained in various proxy records is examined. As indicators, the proxies duly represent or record aspects of local climate. Questions on the relevance and validity of the locality paradigm for climatological research become sharper as studies of climatic changes on timescales of 50–100 years or longer […]

FY 2004 Budget Request Will Accelerate Development of Ballistic Missile Defense System

The details of the President’s FY 2004 budget request, released today, show the continued commitment of the Bush Administration to accelerating the development and deployment of the missile defense system.  

Think Tanks for Homeland Security

Homeland security chief Tom Ridge has been tapping into the collective wisdom of the think tank community of late as he works to bring the new Department of Homeland Security into being. Ridge stopped by the Center for the Study of the Presidency before the holidays for a nearly two-hour advice fest with about 20 […]

Setback Will Not Derail Momentum in Ballistic Missile Defense System

In the eighth intercept test of the Ground-based Midcourse Ballistic Missile Defense (GMD) program, the exoatmospheric kill vehicle (EKV) and its booster failed to separate, preventing the EKV from destroying the target warhead. A similar problem occurred during the July 8, 2000 test. Since then, the GMD program has posted a string of successful intercepts.  

Is Cyber Terrorism Coming?

The past several years have brought an increase in attacks on computer networks.  Although some of these attacks have been disruptive and costly, few if any can be regarded as acts of terrorism.  Is the cyberterror threat serious or overblown?  On May 2, 2002, Dr. Denning assessed the threat of cyberterrorism in the light of […]

Sun-Climate and Cosmic Ray-Climate Resources on the Web

Solar+Cosmic Ray Data From this NOAA web, you can get most solar indices including sunspot number. The Wilcox Solar Observatory University Chicago Space Physics Data: including the cosmic-ray’s neutron count flux Want Solar Wind Data and Plots Go visit National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) OMNIweb. Space Environment Monitor for GOES’s monitoring of various important […]

Civic Environmentalism: A New Approach to Policy

In Civic Environmentalism: A New Approach to Policy, we look at the special strengths of civic environmentalism in meeting today’s pressing environmental needs – including examples of a thriving citizen movement that has arisen across the country. We continue on to discuss the deep American political traditions that underpin the power of civic environmentalism. Finally, […]

The Principle of Compromise

Everyone understands that the vast majority of environmental policies in this country are a result of compromise and bargaining. But while this situation may be widely acknowledged, it is not as widely approved of. The rhetoric and even the expectations of many environmental activists are premised on the existence of clear-cut solutions to environmental problems […]

Excessive Economic and National Security Costs to Result From Low Carbon Fuel Standards

New Studies Highlight Consequences of Proposed Federal and State Actions The George C. Marshall Institute has released two studies documenting the adverse economic, environmental and national security implications of proposed low carbon fuel standards (LCFS). Low carbon fuel standards have been proposed at both the federal and state level, and serve as an element of […]

Our Best Response to Climate Change: Economic Growth

President Clinton has said that climate change is “our overwhelming environmental challenge…the gathering crisis that requires worldwide action.” An objective look suggests that this kind of heated oratory is a far greater problem than global warming. Over the past century, the average global temperature rose by about 1 degree Fahrenheit because of a complex potpourri […]


Can the FDA be brought to health? This is the question asked in To America’s Health: A Proposal to Reform the Food and Drug Administration, by Henry I. Miller, member of the Marshall Institute’s science advisory board. Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman describes Dr. Miller’s book as “extremely thoughtful, intelligent, and knowledgeable.” Dr. Miller writes: […]

Decentralization of Environmental Policymaking: Civic Environmentalism in Theory and Practice. Proceedings of the Civic Environmentalism Working Group Conference

Executive Summary This conference had two purposes. First, to explore decentralized approaches to management of environmental questions with special, though not exclusive, attention given to the democratic goverance of the Maine lobster fisheries. Second, to fit the Maine experience with civic environmentalism (and those of other regions and in urban settings) into the broader context […]

Marshall Institute’s Dr. William Happer Signs Open Letter to Congress Challenging Climate Change Science

Dr. William Happer – Marshall Institute Board Member and Professor of Physics at Princeton University – was among many distinguished scientists asking Congress to dismiss alarmist climate change science.  The open letter to Congress noted that the Earth has been cooling for a decade and proposed legislation to mandate significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions […]

Increasing Carbon Dioxide and Global Climate Change

No evidence can be found for catastrophic global warming from the recent rise in the air’s carbon dioxide content as a result of human activities. The elevated carbon dioxide concentration in the air has, however, had a positive impact on plant growth.

Can Effect Come Before Cause in Global Warming? New Findings on a Basic Relationship

Records of ancient climates show a close connection between atmospheric carbon dioxide and the Earth’s temperature. Carbon dioxide and temperature have been tracking each other for many thousands of years. In his best-selling book, Earth in the Balance, Vice President Gore stressed this as strong evidence for global warming resulting from our burning of coal […]

Paracelsus to Parascience – The Environmental Cancer Distraction

Abstract. Entering a new millennium seems a good time to challenge some old ideas, which in our view are implausible, have little supportive evidence, and might best be left behind. In this essay we summarize a decade of work, raising four issues that involve toxicology, nutrition, public health, and government regulatory policy. a) Paracelsus or […]

Our Response to the Sierra Club Attack on Environmental Education

Letters to the Editor Sierra 85 Second Street San Francisco, CA 94105-3441 Dear Editor: Bruce Selcraig (“Reading, ‘Riting, and Ravaging,” Sierra May/June 1998) knowingly distorts the serious work of the Independent Commission on Environmental Education by branding it a corporate funded enterprise unsympathetic to the interests of education. I say knowingly because we have had […]

We’re All ‘Corporate Polluters’ Now

Radical environmentalists have learned that while science and economics are rarely on their side, they can always win publicity points by accusing their opponents of having sold their souls to corporate polluters. But this line, too, has run out, since it turns out that everyone-your school, your church, your children’s scout troop, the Humane Society, […]

New Directions in Space: A Report on the Lunar and Mars Initiatives

In 1990, the Marshall Institute examined the lunar and Mars initiative put forth by President George H.W. Bush. In light of the January 2004 announcement to return to the Moon and Mars, this report is once again relevant to the policy dialogue.

Why President Reagan is Right about Missile Defense

For many years the safety of the United States has rested on the assumption that if  the Soviet Union attacked, we would be able to destroy the Soviet homeland in retaliation. Of course, the Soviets could also destroy us if we attacked them. This is called security through Mutual Assured Destruction, or MAD. An important […]

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